Second Growth Forest


Flora, fauna, earth, and sky...
The natural history of the northwoods


  • Province: Laurentian Mixed Forest
    • Section: Northern Superior Uplands
      • Subsection: Border Lakes
  • System: Fire Dependent Woodland


  • The Alder/Willow Wetland, about 2.5% of the BWCAW by surface area
  • Slow moving subsurface water with dense, nearly impenetrable cover of tall shrubs
  • Signature Species





  • Sedges, Carex ssp

Ground Cover

  • Feather Mosses,
  • Dicranum Moss, Dicranum spp.
  • Hair Cap Mosses,
  • Sphagnum Moss, Sphagnum spp.

Landform & Topography:

Soils & Hydrology:


  • About 23% of the BWCAW by surface area, estimated prior to the great blowdown of 1999. A much larger area today.
  • The northern forest subsequent to logging or other disruption
  • Signature Species
  • Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum
  • Black Billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
  • Grey Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis
  • Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum
  • American Robin, Turdus migratorius
  • Grey Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis
  • Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum
  • Bohemian Waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus
  • Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum
  • Rose Breasted Grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus
  • Philadelphia Vireo, Vireo philadelphicus
  • Nashville Warbler, Vermivora ruficapilla
  • Orange Crowned Warbler, Vermivora celata
  • Northern Parula Warbler, Parula americana
  • Chestnut Sided Warbler, Dendroica pensylvanica
  • Black Throated Green Warbler, Dendroica virens
  • Golden Winged Warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera
  • Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia
  • American Redstart, Setophagia ruticilla
  • Black and White Warbler, Mniotilta varia
  • Connecticut Warbler, Oporornis agilis
  • Mourning Warbler, Oporornis philadelphia
  • Common Yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
  • Chipping Sparrow, Spizella passerina
  • Clay Colored Sparrow, Spizella pallida
  • Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia
  • Dark Eyed Junco, Junco hyemalis
  • Common Grackle, Quiscalus quiscula
  • Brown Headed Cowbird, Molothrus ater
  • Common Redpoll, Carduelis flammea
  • American Goldfinch, Carduelis tristis
  • Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea
  • Moose, Alces alces
  • White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus


  • History


Lowland Plant Communities Upland Plant Communities

Boreal border

Valley Internet Company
Return to Home Page
Send Feedback to Webmaster

Last updated on 30 June, 2004